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Becoming a validator

Validators are the key actor in maintaining the Polygon network. Validators run a full node, secure the network by staking MATIC to produce blocks, validate and participate in PoS consensus.

Info

There is limited space for accepting new validators. New validators can only join the active set when a currently active validator unbonds/is removed due to low performance. If you are interested in becoming a validator on the PoS network, you can submit an application here: https://polygoncommunity.typeform.com/validatorshub

  • Submitting an application does not guarantee you a validator slot.

Overview

Polygon consists of the three following layers:

  • Ethereum layer — a set of contracts on the Ethereum mainnet.
  • Heimdall layer — a set of proof-of-stake Heimdall nodes running in parallel to the Ethereum mainnet, monitoring the set of staking contracts deployed on the Ethereum mainnet, and committing the Polygon Network checkpoints to the Ethereum mainnet. Heimdall is based on Tendermint.
  • Bor layer — a set of block-producing Bor nodes shuffled by Heimdall nodes. Bor is based on Go Ethereum.

To be a validator on the Polygon Network, you must run:

  • Sentry node — a separate machine running a Heimdall node and a Bor node. A sentry node is open to all nodes on the Polygon Network.
  • Validator node — a separate machine running a Heimdall node and a Bor node. A validator node is only open to its sentry node and closed to the rest of the network.
  • Stake the MATIC tokens in the staking contracts deployed on the Ethereum mainnet.

Components

Heimdall

Heimdall does the following:

  • Monitors the staking contracts on the Ethereum mainnet.
  • Verifies all state transitions on the Bor chain.
  • Commits the Bor chain state checkpoints to the Ethereum mainnet.

Heimdall is based on Tendermint.

Info

See Also

Bor

Bor does the following:

  • Produces blocks on the Polygon Network.

Bor is the Block producer node and layer for the Polygon Network. It is based on Go Ethereum. Blocks produced on Bor are validated by Heimdall nodes.

Info

See Also

Validator responsibilities

Stay in the know

Keep up with the latest node and validator updates from the Polygon team and the community by keeping an eye on the announcements posed to Polygon forums.

A blockchain validator is someone who is responsible for validating transactions within a blockchain. On the Polygon Network, any participant can be qualified to become a Polygon’s validator by running a Validator Node (Sentry + Validator) to earn rewards and collect transaction fees. To ensure the good participation by validators, they lock up at least 1 MATIC token as a stake in the ecosystem.

Active validator limit

Currently, there is a limit of 100 active validators at a time.

Also, after the PIP4 governance proposal is implemented on the contract-level, the minimum staking amount will increase to 10,000 MATIC.

Any validator on the Polygon Network has the following responsibilities:

  • Technical node operations (done automatically by the nodes)
  • Operations
  • Maintain high uptime
  • Check node-related services and processes daily
  • Run node monitoring
  • Keep ETH balance (between 0.5 to 1) on the signer address
  • Delegation
  • Be open to delegation
  • Communicate commission rates
  • Communication
  • Communicate issues
  • Provide feedback and suggestions
  • Earn staking rewards for validate blocks on the blockchain

Technical node operations

The following technical node operations are done automatically by the nodes:

  • Block producer selection:
  • Select a subset of validators for the block producer set for each span.
  • For each span, select the block producer set again on Heimdall and transmit the selection information to Bor periodically.
  • Validating blocks on Bor:
  • For a set of Bor blocks, each validator independently reads block data for these blocks and validates the data on Heimdall.
  • Checkpoint submission:
  • A proposer is chosen among the validators for each Heimdall block. The checkpoint proposer creates the checkpoint of Bor block data, validates, and broadcasts the signed transaction for other validators to consent to.
  • If more than ⅔ of the active validators reach consensus on the checkpoint, the checkpoint is submitted to the Ethereum mainnet.
  • Sync changes to Polygon staking contracts on Ethereum:
  • Continuing from the checkpoint submission step, since this is an external network call, the checkpoint transaction on Ethereum may or may not be confirmed, or may be pending due to Ethereum congestion issues.
  • In this case, there is an ack/no-ack process that is followed to ensure that the next checkpoint contains a snapshot of the previous Bor blocks as well. For example, if checkpoint 1 is for Bor blocks 1-256, and it failed for some reason, the next checkpoint 2 will be for Bor blocks 1-512. See also Heimdall architecture: Checkpoint.
  • State sync from the Ethereum mainnet to Bor:
  • Contract state can be moved between Ethereum and Polygon, specifically through Bor:
  • A DApp contract on Ethereum calls a function on a special Polygon contract on Ethereum.
  • The corresponding event is relayed to Heimdall and then Bor.
  • A state-sync transaction gets called on a Polygon smart contract and the DApp can get the value on Bor via a function call on Bor itself.
  • A similar mechanism is in place for sending state from Polygon to Ethereum. See also State Sync Mechanism.

Operations

Maintain high uptime

The node uptime on the Polygon Network is based on the number of checkpoint transactions that the validator node has signed.

Approximately every 34 minutes a proposer submits a checkpoint transaction to the Ethereum mainnet. The checkpoint transaction must be signed by every validator on the Polygon Network. Failure to sign a checkpoint transaction results in the decrease of your validator node performance.

The process of signing the checkpoint transactions is automated. To ensure your validator node is signing all valid checkpoint transactions, you must maintain and monitor your node health.

Check node services and processes daily

You must check daily the services and processes associated with Heimdall and Bor. Also, pruning of the nodes should be done regularly to reduce disk usage.

Run node monitoring

You must run either:

  • Grafana Dashboards provided by Polygon. See GitHub repository: Matic-Jagar setup
  • Or, use your own monitoring tools for the validator and sentry nodes
  • Ethereum endpoint used on nodes should be monitored to ensure the node is within the request limits

Maintain ETH balance

You must maintain an adequate amount of ETH (should be always around the threshold value i.e., 0.5 to 1) on your validator signer address on the Ethereum Mainnet.

You need ETH to:

  • Sign the proposed checkpoint transactions on the Ethereum Mainnet.
  • Propose and send checkpoint transactions on the Ethereum Mainnet.

Not maintaining an adequate amount of ETH on the signer address will result in:

  • Delays in the checkpoint submission. Note that transaction gas prices on the Ethereum network may fluctuate and spike.
  • Delays in the finality of transactions included in the checkpoints.
  • Delays in subsequent checkpoint transactions.

Delegation

Be open for delegation

All validators must be open for delegation from the community. Each validator has the choice of setting their own commission rate. There is no upper limit to the commission rate.

Communicate commission rates

It is the moral duty of the validators to communicate the commission rates and the commission rate changes to the community. The preferred platforms to communicate the commission rates are:

Communication

Communicate issues

Communicating issues as early as possible ensures that the community and the Polygon team can rectify the problems as soon as possible. The preferred platforms to communicate the commission rates are:

Provide feedback and suggestions

At Polygon, we value your feedback and suggestions on any aspect of the validator ecosystem. Forum is the preferred platform to provide feedback and suggestions.

Run and maintain a node

The following step-by-step guides will take you through the process of running a new validator node, or performing necessary maintenance actions for an existing node you’ve deployed.

Join the network as a validator

Maintain your validator nodes

Community assistance


Last update: February 13, 2024
Authors: kmurphypolygon (1.57%), hsutaiyu (97.38%), hsutaiyu (1.05%)