Skip to content

Basic Syntax

This section is devoted to explain the basic syntax of zkASM from a high-level perspective. Advanced syntax is totally dependant on the use case (e.g. the design of a zkEVM) and will be explained in more detail with more complete examples later on.


Each instruction of the zkASM is executed sequentially (the exception being the execution of a jump) one after the other.

Instructions are depicted line by line and are divided in two parts. The left-side part includes the code that is actually getting executed in the corresponding file, while the right-side part is related to the execution of opcodes, jumps and subroutines, indicated by the colon “\(:\)” symbol.

Comments and modules

Comments are made with the semicolon “\(;\)” symbol.

; This is a totally useful comment

At this moment, only one-line comments are available.

One can subdivide the zkASM code into multiple files and import code with the INCLUDE keyword. This is what we refer to as the modularity of the zkASM.

; File: main.zkasm

INCLUDE "utils.zkasm"
INCLUDE "constants.zkasm"
; -- code --

Storing values on registers

There are many ways in which values can be stored into registers:

  1. Assigning a constant into one or more registers is done using the arrow operator “=>”.

    0 => A,B
  2. Similarly, we can store the value of a register into other registers.

    A => B,C

    More generally, we can store the value of a function \(f\) of registers.

    f(A,B) => C,D
  3. We can also store a global variable into some register.

    %GLOBAL_VAR => A,B
  4. The result of executing an executor method can also be stored into one or more registers. The indication of such an execution is done with the dollar “$” sign, which should be treated as a free input.

    ${ExecutorMethod(params)} => A,B
    ; Notice that the method `ExecutorMethod` does not necessarily depend on the registers.
    ; A good example of such a method is `SHA256`.
  5. If a method gets executed (with the dollar sign) by its own, its main purpose is generating log information.

  6. Apart from executor methods, one can also use inline functions. These functions, which are also instantiated by the executor, are simply “short” and non-reused executor methods.

    ${A >> 2} => B
    ${A & 0x03} => C

Introducing opcodes

Until this point, every instruction consisted of a direct interaction with the registers. Now, we move one step forward and we create interaction with other parts of the ROM, thanks to the introduction of zkEVM Opcodes.

To assign the output of a zkEVM Opcode into some register, we use the following syntax:

$ => A,B    :OPCODE(param)

A clear example of one such situation is while using the memory load opcode:

$ => A,B    :MLOAD(param)

When a registers appear at the side of an Opcode, it is typically used to indicate that the value of the register A is the input of the memory store opcode:

A   :MSTORE(param)

Similarly, we can assign a free input into a register and later on execute several zkEVM Opcodes using the following syntax:

${ExecutorMethod(params)} => A      :OPCODE1

When an executor method with a register to store its result gets combined with a jump opcode, it is typically used to handle some unexpected situation, e.g. running out of gas:

${ExecutorMethod(params)} => A :JMP(param)

It is also common to encounter negative jumps to check appropriate situations, in which carry on forthcoming operations:

SP - 2  :JMPN(stackUnderflow)

Code injection

Inline javascript-based instruction can be injected in plain by using the double dollar “$” symbol.


The main difference between the single dollar sign and the double dollar sign is that while the methods inside the single dollar sign come from the Executor, the double dollar ones do not. It’s a plain javascript code that is executed by the ROM.


Asserts work by comparing what is being asserted with the value on register A. For instance, the following instructions compares the value inside register B with the value inside register A: