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Type declarations

Constants (const)

Constants can be optionally declared with the const keyword at the top of an AirScript module just below the declaration of the module name. They can be scalars, vectors or matrices. Constant names must contain only uppercase letters.

Each constant is defined by an identifier and a value in the following format:

const FOO = 123
const BAR = [1, 2, 3]
const BAZ = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]

In the above example, FOO is a constant of type scalar with value 123, BAR is a constant of type vector with value [1, 2, 3], and BAZ is a constant of type matrix with value [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]].

Execution trace (trace_columns)

A trace_columns section contains declarations for main trace columns or aux (auxiliary) trace columns.

The main and aux declarations define the shape of the main and auxiliary execution traces respectively and define identifiers which can be used to refer to each of the columns or a group of columns in that trace. The columns can also be referred using the built-in variables $main and $aux and the index of the column in the respective trace.

Important

A trace_columns section with a main declaration is required for an AIR defined in AirScript to be valid. The aux declaration is optional, but if it is defined then it must follow the main declaration.

The following is a valid trace_columns source section:

trace_columns:
    main: [a, b, c[3], d]
    aux: [e, f]

In the above example, the main execution trace for the AIR has 6 columns with 4 column bindings, where the identifiers a, b, and d are each bound to a single column and c refers to a group of 3 columns. Single columns can be referenced using their identifiers (e.g. a, b and d) and columns in a group (e.g. c) can be referenced using the identifier c and the index of the column within the group c (c[0], c[1] and c[2]). Similarly, the auxiliary execution trace has 2 columns which can be referenced by e and f.

Public inputs (public_inputs)

A public_inputs section contains declarations for public inputs. Currently, each public input must be provided as a vector of a fixed size, but there is no limit to how many of them can be declared within the public_inputs section.

Warning

  • Public inputs are required.
  • There must be at least one pubic input declared.

Each public input is described by an identifier and an array length (n) in the following format:

identifier: [n]

The following is an example of a valid public_inputs source section:

public_inputs:
    program_hash: [4]
    stack_inputs: [16]
    stack_outputs: [16]

In the above example, the public input program_hash is an array of length 4. stack_inputs and stack_outputs are both arrays of length 16.

Public inputs can be referenced by boundary constraints by using the identifier and an index. For example, the 3rd element of the program_hash declared above would be referenced as program_hash[2].

Periodic columns (periodic_columns)

A periodic_columns section contains declarations for periodic columns used in the description and evaluation of integrity constraints. Each periodic column declares an array of periodic values which can then be referenced by the declared identifier.

There is no limit to how many of them can be declared within the periodic_columns section.

Note

  • Periodic columns are optional.
  • It is equally valid to define an empty periodic_columns section or to omit the periodic_columns section declaration entirely.

Each periodic column is described by an identifier and an array of integers in the following format. These integers are the periodic values.

identifier: [i, j, k, n]

The length of each of the array must be a power of two which is greater than or equal to 2.

The following is an example of a valid periodic_columns source section:

periodic_columns:
    k0: [0, 0, 0, 1]
    k1: [1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0]

In the above example, k0 declares a periodic column with a cycle of length 4, and k1 declares a periodic column with a cycle of length 8.

Periodic columns can be referenced by integrity constraints by using the column’s identifier.

When constraints are evaluated, these periodic values always refer to the value of the column in the current row. For example, when evaluating an integrity constraint such as enf k0 * a = 0, k0 would be evaluated as 0 in rows 0, 1, 2 of the trace and as 1 in row 3, and then the cycle would repeat. Attempting to refer to the “next” row of a periodic column, such as by k0', is invalid and will cause a ParseError.

Random values (random_values)

A random_values section contains declarations for random values provided by the verifier. Random values can be accessed by the named identifier for the whole array or by named bindings to single or grouped random values within the array.

Random values are optional. However if the section is declared then it cannot be empty and it can only contain a single declaration.

The following is an example of a valid random_values source section:

random_values:
    rand: [4]

In the above example, rand is a random value array of length 4. Random values can be accessed using $ followed by the name of the array and the index of the value. For example, $rand[2] would refer to the third random value in the array.

The following is an example of a valid random_values section with named bindings to particular random values and groups of random values:

random_values:
    rand: [a, b, c[2]]

In the above example, rand is a random value array of length 4 and a and b are individual random value bindings and c is a binding referring to a group of 2 random values. In this case, random values can be accessed similarly (e.g. $rand[2]) or using named bindings (e.g. a or c[0]). Here, $rand[2] and c[0] refer to the same random value.


Last update: December 15, 2023
Authors: kmurphypolygon