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Constraints

Boundary constraints (boundary_constraints)

The boundary_constraints section consists of expressions describing the expected value of columns in the main or auxiliary traces at the specified boundary. Column boundaries can be selected using boundary accessors. Valid boundary accessors are .first, which selects the first cell of the column to which it is applied, and .last, which selects the last cell of the column column to which it is applied.

Important

Boundary constraints are required. The boundary_constraints section must be defined and contain at least one boundary constraint.

Boundary constraints that are defined against auxiliary columns or that use random values from the built-in $rand array will be identified as auxiliary constraints.

A boundary constraint definition must:

  1. Start with a block indentation and the enf keyword to indicate that the constraint must be enforced.
  2. Continue by specifying a column identifier with a boundary accessor, e.g. a.first or a.last.
  3. Continue with =
  4. Continue with a right-hand-side “value” expression that evaluates to the required value of the specified column at the specified boundary. The expression may include numbers, named constants, variables, public inputs, random values, and any of the available operations.
  5. End with a newline.

Simple example

The following is a simple example of a valid boundary_constraints source section:

def BoundaryConstraintsExample

trace_columns:
    main: [a]
    aux: [p]

public_inputs:
    <omitted for brevity>

boundary_constraints:
    # these are main constraints.
    enf a.first = 0
    enf a.last = 10

    # these are auxiliary constraints, since they are defined against auxiliary trace columns.
    enf p.first = 1
    enf p.last = 1

integrity_constraints:
    <omitted for brevity>

Public inputs and random values

Boundary constraints can access public input values and random values provided by the verifier in their value expressions.

To use public inputs, the public input must be declared in the public_inputs source section. They can be accessed using array indexing syntax, as described by the accessor syntax rules.

To use random values, they must be declared in the random_values source section. Random values are defined by an identifier which is bound to a fixed-length array (e.g. rand: [16]), but it is additionally possible to bind identifiers to specific random values or groups of values (e.g. rand: [a, b[14], c]). Random values can be accessed by using $ followed by the array identifier and the index of the value (e.g. $rand[10]) or by using the name of the bound random value or group along with the index of the value within the group (e.g. a or b[5]), as described by the accessor syntax rules.

Example

The following is an example of a valid boundary_constraints source section that uses public inputs and random values:

def BoundaryConstraintsExample

trace_columns:
    main: [a, b]
    aux: [p0, p1]

public_inputs:
    stack_inputs: [16]
    stack_outputs: [16]

boundary_constraints:
    # these are main constraints that use public input values.
    enf a.first = stack_inputs[0]
    enf a.last = stack_outputs[0]

    # these are auxiliary constraints that use public input values.
    enf p0.first = stack_inputs[1]
    enf p0.last = stack_outputs[1]

    # these are auxiliary constraints that use random values from the verifier.
    enf b.first = a + $rand[0]
    enf p1.first = (stack_inputs[2] + $rand[0]) * (stack_inputs[3] + $rand[1])

integrity_constraints:
    <omitted for brevity>

Intermediate variables

Boundary constraints can use intermediate variables to express more complex constraints. Intermediate variables are declared using the let keyword, as described in the variables section.

Example

The following is an example of a valid boundary_constraints source section that uses intermediate variables:

def BoundaryConstraintsExample

trace_columns:
    main: [a, b]
    aux: [p0, p1]

public_inputs:
    <omitted for brevity>

boundary_constraints:
    # this is an auxiliary constraint that uses intermediate variables.
    let x = $rand[0]
    let y = $rand[1]
    enf p1.first = x * y

integrity_constraints:
    <omitted for brevity>

Integrity constraints (integrity_constraints)

The integrity_constraints section consists of expressions describing constraints that must be true at each row of the execution trace in order for the proof to be valid.

Warning

  • Integrity constraints are required.
  • The integrity_constraints section must be defined and contain at least one integrity constraint.

Integrity constraints that are defined against auxiliary columns or that use random values from the built-in $rand array will be identified as auxiliary constraints.

An integrity constraint definition must:

  1. Start with a block indentation and the enf keyword to indicate that the constraint must be enforced.
  2. Continue with an equality expression that describes the constraint. The expression may include numbers, constants, variables, trace columns, periodic columns, random values, and any of the available operations.
  3. End with a newline.

Current and next rows

Integrity constraints have access to values in the “current” row of the trace to which the constraint is being applied, as well as the “next” row of the trace. The value of a trace column in the next row is specified with the ' postfix operator, as described by the accessor syntax rules.

Simple example

The following is a simple example of a valid integrity_constraints source section using values from the current and next rows of the main and auxiliary traces:

def IntegrityConstraintsExample

trace_columns:
    main: [a, b]
    aux: [p]

public_inputs:
    <omitted for brevity>

boundary_constraints:
    <omitted for brevity>

integrity_constraints:
    # these are main constraints. they both express the same constraint.
    enf a' = a + 1
    enf b' - b - 1 = 0

    # this is an auxiliary constraint, since it uses an auxiliary trace column.
    enf p = p' * a

Periodic columns and random values

Integrity constraints can access the value of any periodic column in the current row, as well as random values provided by the verifier.

To use periodic column values, the periodic column must be declared in the periodic_columns source section. The value in the current row can then be accessed by using the defined identifier of the periodic column.

Random values can be accessed by using array indexing syntax on the $rand built-in, as described by the accessor syntax rules.

Example

The following is an example of a valid integrity_constraints source section that uses periodic columns and random values:

def IntegrityConstraintsExample

trace_columns:
    main: [a, b]
    aux: [p0, p1]

public_inputs:
    <omitted for brevity>

periodic_columns:
    k: [1, 1, 1, 0]

boundary_constraints:
    <omitted for brevity>

integrity_constraints:
    # this is a main constraint that uses a periodic column.
    enf a' = k * a

    # this is an auxiliary constraint that uses a periodic column.
    enf p0' = k * p0

    # these are auxiliary constraints that use random values from the verifier.
    enf b = a + $rand[0]
    enf p1 = k * (a + $rand[0]) * (b + $rand[1])

Intermediate variables

Integrity constraints can use intermediate variables to express more complex constraints. Intermediate variables are declared using the let keyword, as described in the variables section.

Example

The following is an example of a valid integrity_constraints source section that uses intermediate variables:

def IntegrityConstraintsExample

trace_columns:
    main: [a, b]
    aux: [p0, p1]

public_inputs:
    <omitted for brevity>

periodic_columns:
    k: [1, 1, 1, 0]

boundary_constraints:
    <omitted for brevity>

integrity_constraints:
    # this is an auxiliary constraint that uses intermediate variables.
    let x = a + $rand[0]
    let y = b + $rand[1]
    enf p1 = k * x * y

Last update: December 15, 2023
Authors: kmurphypolygon